Efficient storage management is a key part of managing Kubernetes applications. Implementing quotas and limits on persistent volume claims (PVCs) and monitoring and tracking usage with Kubernetes tools are essential.
Save the non-sensitive configuration in ConfigMaps rather than passing it in as environment variables. This reduces the risk of sensitive information being exposed through command line parameters, which individuals can inspect without access to the application code.
Define a Default Storage Class
The storage class Kubernetes feature allows cluster administrators to define abstractions for the underlying storage platform. A default storage class can be defined when a Kubernetes cluster is installed, or the administrator can create a new storage class as needed.
Storage classes are used to provision persistent volumes (PVs) dynamically. The PV represents actual storage attached to the pod in the cluster and mapped to real disks on the infrastructure provider.
A storage class consists of parameters that describe how a PV should be provisioned. A StorageClass also references a volume plugin, which binds a PersistentVolumeClaim to a PV.
A PVC that specifies a storage class in its claimRef field will automatically be bound to the specified PV unless the claimRef is set to “any” or “none”. This allows the administrator to control what types of PVs are used for various applications in the cluster. Depending on the cluster’s reclaim policy, storage classes can also be set to retain or delete a PVC after it has been unclaimed.
Monitor Storage Usage
A key aspect of storage management is keeping an eye on storage usage. Kubernetes tracks storage capacity and tries to schedule Pods onto nodes with sufficient space for the corresponding Persistent Volume (PV). If you don’t monitor your storage, it may not meet your cluster’s data durability and redundancy requirements.
Storage classes can simplify storage management and ensure your application uses the appropriate storage. By defining access modes and specifying reclaim policies, storage classes can match PVCs with the right underlying storage devices, making managing and scaling stateful applications easier.
A reclaim policy defines what happens to a Persistent Volume when the underlying storage device reaches capacity. The default reclaim policy is to Delete, which removes the Persistent Volume from the Kubernetes cluster and destroys the associated storage asset in external infrastructure. You can also define a Retain reclaim policy to keep a copy of the PV so that users can request it again. Doing so can avoid the costs of redeploying an existing PV.
Optimize Storage Performance
Storage Classes allow Kubernetes to separate storage configuration requirements from applications and users. This helps to reduce storage sprawl and costs while providing high performance and reliability.
A good way to optimize storage performance is to implement a caching strategy for frequently accessed data. Another is to use a storage provisioner that supports data efficiency features such as deduplication, compression, and thin provisioning.
Another best practice is to use tools like Prometheus, Grafana, and the Kubernetes metrics API to monitor and visualize storage-related metrics. This enables you to detect storage issues and proactively address them.
Kubernetes users should also ensure that storage resources are not overconsumed by implementing resource quotas and limits. Additionally, they should ensure a consistent troubleshooting process for addressing storage-related issues. Lastly, they should use a managed storage usage monitoring solution to help visualize and analyze cluster storage costs and utilization. This can help to identify overconsumption and provide alerts when predefined thresholds are reached. By following these storage management best practices, organizations can deploy a scalable and efficient Kubernetes storage environment that meets the requirements of their applications.
Define Data Retention Policies
Kubernetes makes creating and deleting workloads as containers easy, but stateful applications such as databases require more than just readable and writable disk space. They must also have strong data persistence.
To meet this need, Kubernetes provides Persistent Volumes. This storage mechanism decouples the storage from Pods so that data persists even when pods are terminated or rescheduled.
Persistent Volumes are provisioned and bound to Pods using the PersistentVolumeClaim (PVC) resource. A PVC can specify its requirements regarding the storage size and access mode (read-only, read/write, or one-time access). The underlying persistent volume driver translates these requirements into storage implementation details such as NFS, cloud storage systems, or proprietary storage platforms.
A PVC can match storage classes by indicating the class name in its storage class attribute. If the storage class matches, the PVC will be bound to a PV of that class, and its storage state will change from Provisioned to Bound. This allows the cluster to provide persistent storage to Pods without the administrator having to know the implementation details of the underlying persistent volume infrastructure.
Automate Storage Provisioning
In addition to defining storage capacity and access modes, storage classes can also be used to define performance characteristics such as disk speed and IOPS. This allows Kubernetes to match application requirements better with the appropriate storage resources.
The storage provisioning method in Kubernetes can be either static or dynamic. Static provisioning requires administrators to pre-allocate all available PVs in advance. This can be time-consuming and resource-intensive, requiring precise foreknowledge of how the cluster will be used to optimize costs and avoid additional allocations.
On the other hand, dynamic provisioning automates storage provisioning by enabling the cluster administrator to create StorageClass objects that refer to volume plugins (aka provisioners). When a PVC is created in a container, the corresponding Provisioner automatically provisions a PV according to the StorageClass specifications.
With the right management tools, Kubernetes’ StorageClass feature can help enterprises maximize storage efficiency. By monitoring storage usage, administrators can identify inefficiencies and implement cost optimizations.