Demystifying Computer Hardware: A Comprehensive Guide to Internal and External Components

Computer Hardware

What are the hardware parts of a computer?

We can also define them as the physical components of an analog or digital computer. The term hardware distinguishes its tangible aspects from software systems. It takes input and gives output along with performing computing operations. It is capable of providing external and internal devices and key functions that you call input, output, execution, communication, processing, and more. 

Hardware refers to the external and internal data that you accept as inputs, communications, prongs, and more. Here we will discuss “What are the hardware parts of a computer?” The hardware parts are the one we can touch. It includes internal and external components of a computer.

Hardware contains written and machine-readable instructions and programs that tell what to do and when to execute the instructions. In this blog, we will discuss different types of hardware parts. Continue reading for further information!

How many hardware parts of a computer?

A computer hardware system categorises in two different parts as internal and external components.

Internal components of a computer

Internal components are those that attach to the motherboard, built-in and contained in an expansion card.


Motherboard, a circuit board in a computer. This helps the motherboard to protect and communicate with the electrical components. The motherboard is also responsible for connecting all the parts of the computer. It also contains the BIOS (Basic Input/ Output System), handles for starting up the computer and giving you the booting system.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

The central processing unit (CPU), is also called the brain of the computer. It comprises the units of any computer system. It consists of control units and main memory units. The CPU is usually located on the motherboard and covered by a heatsink and fan to keep it cool. There are main components of the CPU.

⦁ H4 Control Unit (CU)

⦁ Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

⦁ Registers

⦁ Cache

⦁ Buses

⦁ Clock

RAM (Random Access Memory)

The entire form of RAM is random access memory. RAM is a piece of hardware that resides on the motherboard. It is a read and write memory. All information read-and-written on it. It upgraded by adding more RAM sticks that located on the motherboard.

ROM (Read Only Memory)

Read only memory, or ROM, is a type of computer data that is non-volatile, permanent, usually read, not writable. ROM contains the program that allows the computer to start or restart each time it turns on.

Power Supply Unit (PSU)

The power supply unit handles supplying electricity to all the components of the computer. It changes AC power from the wall outlet into DC power which is used by the computer. The PSU is usually located on the display of the computer and connected to the motherboard and other cases.

Optical drive 

An optical disc drive (ODD) in a computer system allows you to use DVDs, CDs, and Blu-ray discs to watch movies or listen to music. Most drives can also allow you to write data to disc, so you can back up your music, video, or important data files.

External components of a computer

External components of a computer hardware link external to your PC. They are also called “Peripheral components”. They perform either internal/ external functions.


Keyboard used to enter text into the computer. It is an essential judge for anyone who wants to use it effectively. Keyboards come in a different type of sizes and configurations, and some have more features such as backlighting or programmable keys.


A mouse used to navigate a computer’s graphical user interface. It allows the user to move the cursor on the screen and click on icons and buttons. Mice come in a different type of shapes and sizes, and some have more features such as programmable buttons or power DPI.

External hard drive

External hard drive used for storing data from a computer. They come in a different type of sizes and capacities, and used for backup or redundancy. External hard drives can be moved between laptops and computers, making them an easy way to store and transfer data.

Memory card define

A memory card is a data type used to store media data. This connected device provides a permanent and authentic media for storing data and files. Memory cards used in small, portable devices, such as phones.


The most common external path to a computer. It is used to display computer output and allows the user to communicate with the computer. Metres are available for you in a different type of resolution, and some even have built-in ones. They are mandatory for anyone who wants to use computers effectively.


What are the differences between ROM and RAM?

ROM stands for “Read Only Memory” and it is non-volatile memory that permanently stores instructions for your computer. RAM stands for “Random Access Memory” and it is volatile memory that temporarily stores the files you are working on.

How do you see which hardware your computer has?

To check your PC’s hardware details, click the Windows Start button, then click Settings (the gear icon). In the Settings menu, click System. Scroll down and click About. On this screen, you should see specs for your processor, memory (RAM), and other system information, including Windows version.

What are the parts in a computer actually doing?

The motherboard connects all the parts together and the CPU processes data, RAM stores data temporarily, storage holds data permanently.


In this article, we have discussed “What are the hardware parts of a computer?”. Each component plays a very important role in the overall performance of the computer. Understanding computer hardware can help you make informed decisions when building or purchasing a new computer. 

The external components of a computer are necessary for its functionality and to allow the user to interact with it. Understanding these components is essential for anyone who wants to use a computer. These are the basic elements of an educational computer system. These are the basic elements of a computer system. A system can never perform without these parts. 

All the technical terms discussed above are the basic elements of a computer. The hardware and the software provide each other to us with the appropriate use of the computer. Hardware is also an element of a computer that is physical. 

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